All the defendants on trial at the International Military Tribunal (IMTFE) for the Far East were found guilty of the charges that they were tried for.
DEATH BY HANGING
Doihara, General Kenji (1883-1948):
Commander, Kwantung Army, 1938-40; Supreme War Council, 1940-43; army commander in Singapore, 1944-45. Deeply involved in the army’s drug trafficking in Manchuria. Later ran brutal POW and internee camps in Malaya, Sumatra, Java and Borneo. Convicted on counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32, 35, 36, 54.
Hirota, Baron Koki (1878-1948):
Ambassador to the Soviet Union, 1928-31; foreign minister, 1933-36; premier, 1936-37. Was foreign minister during the Rape of Nanking and other atrocities perpetrated by the army. As premier, he led his cabinet in planning the invasions of Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, in addition to continuing the undeclared war against China. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 55.
Itagaki, General Seishiro (1885-1948):
Chief of staff, Kwantung Army, 1936-37; minister of war, 1938-39; chief, army general staff, 1939; commander in Korea, 1941; Supreme War Council, 1943; commander in Singapore, 1945. Troops under his command in China and elsewhere terrorized prisoners and civilians. Was responsible for prison camps in Java, Sumatra, Malaya, Borneo and elsewhere. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32, 35, 36, 54.
Kimura, General Heitaro (1888-1948):
Chief of staff, Kwantung Army, 1940-41; vice minister of war, 1941-43; Supreme War Council, 1943; army commander in Burma, 1944-45. Helped plan the China and Pacific wars, including surprise attacks. Involved in the brutalization of the Allied POWs and was the field commander in Burma when civilian and POW slave labor built and died on the Siam-Burma Railway. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32, 54, 55.
Matsui, General Iwane (1878-1948):
Personal appointee of the emperor to the Geneva Disarmament Conference, 1932-37; commander, China Expeditionary Force, 1937-38. Troops under his overall command were responsible for the Rape of Nanking in 1937 and other atrocities. He retired in 1938 and then ceased to play an active role in military affairs. Convicted on Count 55.
Muto, General Akira (1892-1948):
Vice chief of staff, China Expeditionary Force, 1937; director, military Affairs Bureau, 1939-42; army commander in Sumatra, 1942-43; army chief of staff in the Philippines, 1944-45. Troops under his command participated in both the Rape of Nanking and the Rape of Manila. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32, 54, 55.
Tojo, General Hideki (1884-1948):
Chief, Manchurian secret police, 1935; councillor, Manchurian Affairs Bureau, 1936; chief of staff, Kwantung Army, 1937-38; vice minister of war, 1938; minister of war 1940-44; premier, 1941-44. Considered the arch-criminal of the Pacific War. Tojo assumed full responsibility for all the actions of his government and the military during the war. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32, 33, 54.
Araki, General Sadao (1877-1966):
Minister of war, 1931-34; Supreme War Council, 1934-36; minister of education 1938-39; senior adviser to the cabinet, 1939-40. An early advocate of Japanese military expansionism. While education minister, he restructured the Japanese school system along military lines. Convicted on Counts 1 and 27. Paroled in 1955.
Hashimoto, Colonel Kingoro (1890-1957):
Held various commands, including that of an artillery regiment during the Rape of Nanking in 1937. Played a major role in staging the Mukden Incident, which eventually led to war with China. Author of political books of racist propaganda, he was important in mobilizing Japanese public opinion behind the Pacific War. Convicted on Counts 1 and 27. Paroled in 1954.
Hata, Field Marshal Shunroku (1879-1962):
Supreme War Council, 1937; commander, China Expeditionary Force, 1938, 1941-44; minister of war, 1939-40. One of the militarists who planned the invasion of China in the 1930s. He was in overall command of troops who perpetrated countless atrocities against Chinese civilians. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32, 55. Paroled in 1954.
Hiranuma, Baron Kiichiro (1867-1952):
Privy Council, 1924-39; founder and president, Kokuhonsha (right-wing patriotic society), 1926-28; premier, 1938; minister of home affairs, 1940; minister without portfolio, 1940-41; president, Privy Council, 1945. Convicted on crimes 1, 27, 29, 31, 32, 36.
Hoshino, Naoki (1892-1978):
Chief of financial affairs, Manchukuo (Manchuria), 1932-34; director of general affairs (chief civilian officer), Manchukuo, 1936; minister without portfolio, 1940-41; chief cabinet secretary, 1941-44. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 312, 32. Paroled in 1955.
Kaya, Okinori (1889-1977):
Minister of finance, 1937-38, 1941-44; president, North China Development Company, 1939-41. An early advocate of selling narcotics to the Chinese to finance the expenses of the occupation forces. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32. Paroled in 1955.
Kido, Marquis Koichi (1889-1977):
Chief secretary to the lord keeper of the privy seal, 1930-37; minister of education, 1937; minister of welfare, 1938; minister of home affairs, 1939; lord keeper of the privy seal 1940-45. Was Emperor Hirohito’s closest adviser during the most critical periods of the wars with China and the Allies. His secret diary, which he kept during all of his time at or near the seat of power, was the prosecution’s bible during much of the Tokyo trial. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32. Paroled in 1955.
Koiso, General Kuniaki (1880-1950):
Vice minister of war, 1932; chief of staff, Kwantung Army, 1932-34; army commander in Korea, 1935-38; minister of overseas affairs, 1939; governor-general, Korea, 1942-44; premier 1944-45. Was known among the Korean population as “the Tiger of Korea” because of his brutality. As premier, he was aware of POW death camps. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32, 55.
Minami, General Jiro (1874-1955):
Minister of war, 1931; Supreme War Council, 1931-34; commander, Kwantung Army, 1934-36; governor-general, Korea, 1936-42; privy Council, 1942-45. An early leader of the army clique that controlled Japan in the 1930s and 1940s. Ruled Japan’s Korean colony with an iron fist. Convicted on Counts 1 and 27. Paroled in 1954.
Oka, Admiral Takasumi (1890-1973):
Chief, Naval Affairs Bureau, 1940-44; vice minister of the navy, 1944. An important participant in planning the surprise attacks perpetrated by Japanese naval forces during the second week in December 1941. Also administered some POW and civilian to shoot survivors of torpedoed Allied ships. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32. Paroled in 1954.
Oshima, General Hiroshi (1886-1975):
Military attaché in Germany, 1934-38; ambassador to Germany, 1938-39, 1941-45. Helped forge the Axis Pact with Germany and Italy and was an intimate of Hitler, Himmler, Goring, and Ribbentrop. Convicted on Count 1. Paroled in 1955.
Sato, General Kenryo (1895-1975):
Section head, then chief, Military Affairs Bureau, 1942-44; assistant chief of staff, China Expeditionary Force, 1944; army commander in Indochina, 1945. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32. Paroled in 1956.
Shimada, Admiral Shigetaro (1883-1976):
Vice chief of naval staff, 1935-37; commander, China Fleet, 1940; navy minister, 1941-44; Supreme War Council, 1944. Authorized the naval surprise attacks in December 1941. Naval units under his overall command massacred Allied POWs, transported prisoners and civilian internees aboard hellships, and killed any surviving crew members of torpedoed Allied ships. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32. Paroled in 1955.
Shiratori, Toshio (1887-1949):
Director, Information Bureau, Foreign Ministry, 1929-33; ambassador to Italy, 1938-40; adviser tot the foreign minister, 1940. A supporter of military expansionism, he favoured an alliance among Germany, Italy the Soviet Union and Japan to dominate the world. Convicted on Count 1.
Suzuki, General Teiichi (1888- ?):
chief, China Affairs Bureau, 1938-41; president, Cabinet Planning Board, and minister without portfolio, 1941-43; adviser to the cabinet, 1943-44. An early and active supporter of militarism. Involved in Japan’s drug trafficking in China and approved the use of POWs and civilians as slave labourers. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32. Paroled in 1955.
Umezu, General Yoshijiro (1882-1949):
Section chief, general staff, 1931-34; commander, China Expeditionary Force, 1934; vice minister of war, 1939-44; army chief of staff, 1944-45. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32.
LESSER TERMS OF IMPRISONMENT
Shigemitsu, Mamoru (1887-1957):
Ambassador to China, 1931-32; vice minister of foreign affairs, 1933-36; ambassador to the Soviet Union, 1936-38; ambassador to Great Britain, 1938-41; foreign minister, 1943-45. He and General Umezu signed the instrument of surrender in 1945. Convicted on Counts 27, 29, 31, 32, 33, 55. Sentenced to seven years in prison. Paroled in 1950, he re-entered the political arena and was appointed foreign minister in 1954.
Togo, General Hideki (1884-1948):
Ambassador to Germany, 1937; ambassador to the Soviet Union, 1938; foreign minister, 1941-42, 1945. Convicted on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32. Sentenced to twenty years in prison.